Naples was founded in the seventh century a.C. from the Greeks who, starting from Cuma, settled on the hill of Pizzofalcone and called it Partenope. In 500 a.C. the same Greeks founded a second inhabited city, lower, closer to the sea, and to distinguish it from the old they called it Neapolis, which in Greek means "new city".
In Naples there is evidence of the many dominations: with the Norman-Swabian monarchy the city was fortified with new buildings, such as Castel Capuano and Castel dell'Ovo, and Frederick II founded the first University in 1224. With the Angevins began the religious factories, such as the Duomo, the church of San Domenico Maggiore, Santa Chiara and San Martino. In this period Naples became an important cultural center and hosted artists of great importance, from Giotto to Simone Martini. But the Renaissance is the happiest period for the arts, with the spread of Flemish painting.
The current structure of the city took shape during the Spanish viceroys, from 1503. We are in a period full of events: the eruption of the Vesuvius in 1631, the revolt of Masaniello in 1647, the plague of 1656. On the other hand, the art continues to be protagonist with artists who refer to Caravaggio's naturalistic painting.
During the 18th century with the first Hapsburg viceroyalty and later the Bourbons, Naples experienced a particularly happy moment: the Teatro San Carlo, the Palazzo Reale, was built. In 1860, after the unification of Italy, the Rehabilitation Plan gutted many city neighborhoods and sacrificed many churches and to build the Rettifilo, the road that connects the station to Piazza Borsa.
In the 20th century the Maritime Station, the Overseas Exhibition and the Post Office Building were built, but with the bombings and the 1980 earthquake Naples suffered serious damage. The arts are always in turmoil, so much that large museum spaces were born: the Gallery of Fine Arts was, in fact, expanded and the Pan and the Madre were founded.
Located in front of the Bay of Naples, Sorrento is built on the cliff that separates it from the port. The historic center is a maze of narrow streets, the main square is Piazza Tasso and a stone's throw away is the Villa Comunale, from which you can admire a breathtaking view. To visit the Correale Museum of Terranova, with its precious furniture, the Capodimonte porcelain and the paintings of the '600, and the Duomo of Sorrento, with the interior in Baroque style.
Pompei, Ercolano, Oplonti, Stabiae
One of the most fascinating testimonies of Roman civilization, Pompei preserves almost intact homes, objects and frescoes, brought to light in the eighteenth century. The area of the Forum is the starting point for visiting the ancient city, the heart of the daily activities of the inhabitants of Pompei. To see the Temple of Apollo, the Temple of Jupiter, the Stabian Baths, the Anfiteatro, among the largest in the world, and the Teatro Grande. In Ercolano there are many private homes, such as "Casa Sannitica", the "House of Neptune and Aphrodite" and "Villa dei Papiri", located just outside the ancient city, still under excavation. In Castellammare di Stabia, instead, Villa Arianna and Villa San Marco are the testimony of the numerous residential villas of that era. Of particular interest are the Oplonti excavations, which include an otium villa called "di Poppea" and a rustic villa called "B o di Lucius Crassius Tertius".
"Heritage of humanity" since 1997, the Amalfi Coast is a natural terrace overlooking the sea and includes 13 municipalities: Amalfi, Atrani, Cetara, Conca dei Marini, Furore, Maiori, Minori, Positano, Praiano, Ravello, Scala, Tramonti, Vietri sul Mare. It is worth visiting them all, including a boat ride and a trip among the many paths on the coast. Amalfi is a good starting point for exploring the coast, with its majestic Duomo and, for trekking enthusiasts, the "Path of the Gods", which starts from Agerola to the lively and colorful Positano, among ancient villages and typically Mediterranean atmospheres.
The Vesuvius is the most famous volcano in the world, currently active, cross and delight of the marvelous territory that surrounds it. To safeguard the environment, in 1995 the Vesuvius National Park was born. Pines, oaks, chestnut groves, flowers and fragrant plants, such as rosemary and sage, characterize this territory together with a rich faunistic community. It is possible to experience the beauties and the peculiarities of the entire volcanic complex through the numerous paths. Particular is the "Sentiero Gran Cono", which leads to the crater, up to the edge. From here you can admire a breathtaking view over the Gulf of Naples, to live an extremely awe-inspiring experience.